By Ive Marx
Social scientists, politicians, and economists have lately been fascinated with the concept the complex welfare states of Europe face a “New Social Question.” The center thought is that the transition from an commercial to a postindustrial setting has introduced with it an entire new set of social hazards, constraints, and trade-offs, which necessitate radical recalibration of social protection structures. a brand new Social query? analyzes that question intensive, with specific cognizance to the matter of source of revenue security and the problems dealing with Bismarckian welfare states. it will likely be valuable analyzing for an individual attracted to figuring out the way forward for eu social policy.About the AuthorIve Marx is learn fellow on the Centre for Social coverage on the college of Antwerp, Belgium. [C:\Users\Microsoft\Documents\Calibre Library]
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Additional info for A New Social Question?: On Minimum Income Protection in the Postindustrial Era
Using the household as the recipient unit involves the conventional assumption that resources are shared within the household so as to equalise living standards. For a further discussion of these issues see Atkinson (1995), Atkinson, Rainwater and Smeeding (1995), Callan and Nolan (1991), Van den Bosch et al. (1993) and Van den Bosch (2001). I initially made these calculations as part of a large-scale oecd-funded project on income distribution and further methodological details can be found in Burniaux et al.
But as I indicated already, the picture for less-skilled women is more ambiguous: significant increases in employment are accompanied by equally significant increases in social security dependency and pre-transfer poverty. 12 Pre-transfer poverty rate by formal level of qualiﬁcation, 1976-1997. 1 Source: Belgian Socio-Economic Panel Survey. 13 Pre-transfer poverty rate by educational quartile, 1976-1997. Level in 1997 and 1976-1997 percentage point diﬀerence 25-64 years of age 25-44 years of age 1997 1976-1997 1997 1976-1997 Educational.
The adjustment made is purely an arithmetical one; social security transfers are deducted from measured household income and direct taxes and employee social security contributions are added again. A note on poverty measurement first. The definition of poverty which appears to be widely accepted in industrialised countries refers to exclusion from the ordinary life of the community due to lack of resources. As Atkinson (1987) and Foster and Shorrocks (1988) emphasise, this still allows for a diversity of possible judgements about the specification of the poverty line and choice of poverty measure.