By Robert W. Seabloom (auth.), Arild Schanke Eikum, Robert W. Seabloom (eds.)
Following the tip of worldwide warfare II there has been a huge migra tion of inhabitants within the usa and Scandinavian international locations to city components. because of this migration and partly as a result of the public works moratoria imposed in the course of the conflict, a massive professional gram of sewer building used to be instigated, which ended in the gathering and next focus of enormous volumes of waste water at unmarried discharge issues. because the assimilative potential of those receiving waters was once handed, it resulted in or irritated current water pollutants difficulties in those waters. To mitigate this degradation of water caliber an enormous software to build wastewater remedy amenities used to be instigated. furthermore, quite a lot of cash have been spent on study to enhance the expertise of the traditional assortment and remedy thought. by contrast, the wastewater disposal challenge of the agricultural property owner got little consciousness, and normally the septic tank soil absorption approach (ST-SAS) used to be the meantime answer. lately there was a basic switch within the inhabitants development trend within the US and Scandinavian international locations. it seems that an exceptional many folks are relocating again to rural components the place they appear to want the suburban or small city envi ronment, but even as wish the entire conveniences of city existence. the supply of right wastewater disposal amenities provides a truly confusing challenge, as the capital and working charges of traditional sewers are typically financially impractical for rural areas.
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Extra info for Alternative Wastewater Treatment: Low-Cost Small Systems, Research and Development Proceedings of the Conference held at Oslo, Norway, September 7–10, 1981
BOYLE ET AL. 40 Table 9. Cost Item Conv. Toil ets COSTS OF INNOVATIVE TOILET SYSTEMS* (US$) Extreme Microphor Toilets Ifo (6L) 500+ 365 35 30 l/yr 0 Low~F1ush Monogram Ifo (3L) Washwater Rec~c1e Aquasaver Capital 110 550** 240 35 Install ation 30 75 Operation 0 l/yr 0 ? Maintenance ? *Based upon installation of one fixture in a new dwelling. **Air compressor and ancillary parts included +Projected cost of production model Table 10. App1ication/ Assumptions 2850 400 55/yr ? ABBREVIATED ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF INNOVATIVE TOILET SYSTEMS* (US$) Conv.
Boulder, Col. 4. : 1975, Relative Pollution Strengths of Undiluted Waste Materials Discharged in Households and the Dilution Waters Used for Each. Manual of Grey Water Treatment Practice - Part II. , Santa Monica, Cal. 5. , M. C. " JEED, ASCE, 102, EE3, Paper 12200. 6. , N. C. " JEED, ASCE 100, EEl, Proc. Paper 10372. 7. C. L. S. Office of Water Res. and Tech. Completion Report. University of Wisconsin-Madison. 8. ter, 14th Edition. C. (1975) . 42 9. W, C, BOYLE ET AL. D. G. " NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Va.
3. : 1977, "VedrlfJrende underslfJke1se av 84 private rensean1egg for enebo1iger i Fet, LlfJrenskog, Nitteda1 og Rre1ingen. Ti1standsbeskrive1se. Arsaker til uti1fredssti11ende forhold. (Investigation of 84 private treatment plants for single houses at Fet, LlfJrenskog, Nitteda1 and Rre1ingen. ) Av1lfJpssambandet Nordre 0yeren (AN0). 4. : 1967, Rapport Nesodden kommune. Vannforsyning Sak 1429. (Report Nesodden Municipality. ) Erik Rrestad A/S. 5. : 1980, "Mound Systems". Design Manual Onsite Wastewater and Disposal systems.